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Cyclic Symmetry is a type of symmetry used in a simulation to simplify the FE model. Cyclic symmetry is appropriate when the geometry, loads, constraints and results of a partial model can be copied around an axis multiple times to create a complete model. The surfaces...

A 2D model is taking advantage of symmetry that allows a 2D representation of the 3D structure. There are three types of 2D models that are used: Plane Stress. This represents a cross section of the model which is extending perpendicular to the 2D plane used....

Mirror Symmetry is the most commonly used form of Symmetry in simulation models. It can be used when both the geometry and loads are mirror symmetrical relative to the same plane. Depending on the number of symmetry planes in the model, the model can be the...

Simulation models can be simplified using Symmetry. This is only appropriate if the geometry as well as the loads are symmetrical in the same direction. There are three different types of Symmetry. Most common is Mirror Symmetry (https://www.fea-solutions.co.uk/mirror-symmetry/), but 2D simplifications (https://www.fea-solutions.co.uk/2d-models/) and cyclic symmetry (https://www.fea-solutions.co.uk/cyclic-symmetry/)...

Solid Elements can have anywhere between 4 corner nodes (for Tetrahedral Elements) and 8 corner nodes (for Hexahedral Elements). Solid Elements are used where all three dimensions of the part are comparable. They are used on most complex parts. Anything that is machined, cast or forged...

Surface Elements consist of 3 or 4 corner nodes, and the mid-surface of a part. Once created, the FEA software requires the surface thickness to be assigned. Surface Elements are used when two part dimensions are much greater than the third dimension. They are used when...

Line Elements consist of a starting point (node), an endpoint and the connectivity between the two which can be visualised by a line in 3D space. Line Elements are suitable to represent beams and trusses, but also for more complex parts such as springs and dampers....

There are different types of Finite Elements used in FEA, with each having a different underlying mathematical model. The most commonly used element types are: Line Elements (also called 1D Elements). (see: https://www.fea-solutions.co.uk/line-elements/) Surface Elements (also called Planar Elements or 2D Elements). (see: https://www.fea-solutions.co.uk/surface-elements/) Solid Elements (also...