Non-Linear Material

Non-Linear Material

Non-linear material behaviour is one of the three non-linear behaviours in structural analysis, see:

Non-Linear Behaviour

When talking about non-linear materials, most people think about plastic behaviour. This is however just one of several non-linear materials. They are:

Plasticity
This describes the non-reversible deformation of a solid part, see:

Elasticity and Plasticity

Viscoelasticity
This is when solid materials have some “fluid-like” behaviour. A fluid is something changes shape easily when subjected to a load. If a fluid is the “viscous” extreme and the elastic solid is the other extreme, then the viscoelastic material is somewhere in between. In contrary to elastic materials, the effect of rate of stretching of viscoelastic material depends on time.

Viscoplasticity
Viscoplasticity is a combination of the viscoelastic and plastic material models. Here, the plasticity is rate-dependent. This material model is used to represent metals at high temperatures, asphalt, concrete, clay, paper pulp, biological cells growth, etc.

Hyperelasticity
This describes non-linear elastic behaviour, which means that there is no plastic (permanent) deformation, but nevertheless the stress-strain curve

Stress-Strain Curves

is not a straight line. This is used for example to represent the behaviour of rubber-like materials.

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